Glossary

3TG
Tantalum, tin, tungsten and gold
4G LTE
4th Generation Long-Term Evolution – a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data
ABF
Aligned Business Framework, Ford’s strategy for working more closely with key suppliers
ACC
Adaptive Cruise Control, a technology that helps drivers maintain a safe distance from the vehicle in front of them
AIAG
Automotive Industry Action Group, a U.S.-based association of automotive OEMs, suppliers and service providers
Annual Report on Form 10-K
An audited annual financial report required by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission containing more detailed information about the company’s business, finances and management than the annual report
BEV
Battery electric vehicle, a vehicle that has no internal combustion engine and does not use any onboard gasoline; instead, it runs on a high-voltage electric motor
BDR
Billion Dollar Roundtable, an exclusive group of companies that purchase a minimum of $1 billion annually from diverse suppliers
Biodiesel
A diesel alternative made from vegetable oils obtained from oil seeds, including soy, canola, palm and rapeseed, or from animal fat
BLIS
Blind Spot Information System, a technology that uses radar sensors to help inform the driver when a vehicle is detected in the blind spot zone
Blueprint for Sustainability
Several years ago, this term was introduced at Ford to describe the actions we are taking to achieve outstanding fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from our products. Now we use the term more broadly to describe our sustainability strategy as a whole, in recognition of the fact that our important sustainability issues are part of a complex system that interconnects our products, plants and people and the communities in which we operate.
BPR
Business Plan Review meetings, one of Ford’s key management processes
CAF
Our Chinese joint venture, formerly known as Changan Ford Mazda Automobile Co. Ltd. (FMA), and recently restructured as Changan Ford Automobile Corporation, Ltd. (CAF) to increase our ownership percentage
CAFE
Corporate Average Fuel Economy, a U.S. regulation requiring auto companies to meet certain sales-weighted average fuel economy levels for passenger cars and light trucks and report these numbers annually
CAMP
Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership, an association of original equipment manufacturers, suppliers and the U.S. government conducting pre-competitive research on active safety features
CDP
Formerly known as the Carbon Disclosure Project, the CDP is a nonprofit organization to which Ford and other companies report their greenhouse gas emissions and water use
Ceres
A network of investors, environmentalists and other public interest groups that works with companies and investors to address sustainability challenges
CNG
Compressed natural gas, a type of alternative fuel
CO2
Carbon dioxide, a primary greenhouse gas
Climate change
Climate change is caused by the increase of heat-trapping (greenhouse) gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), in the Earth’s atmosphere. The increase in atmospheric concentrations of these greenhouse gases is primarily caused by burning fossil fuels, including gasoline and diesel used to power automobiles.
Conflict-Free Sourcing Initiative
A resource for companies from a range of industries addressing conflict minerals issues in their supply chains
Conflict Minerals
Gold, as well as Columbite-Tantalite (coltan), cassiterite, wolframite or their derivatives, which are limited to tantalum, tin and tungsten
Connectivity
The ability of things, devices and systems to connect with each other, allowing data to be exchanged between them
CSR Europe
The leading European business network for Corporate Social Responsibility
DOE
U.S. Department of Energy
E85
A fuel blend of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline
EcoBoost®
Ford engine technology that uses turbocharging, direct injection and reduced displacement to increase fuel economy and performance while reducing CO2 emissions
ECOnetic
A line of European Ford model vehicles with reduced CO2 emissions
Electrification
The process of developing the technology and infrastructure necessary to replace traditional oil-based vehicle fuels with electricity
ELV
End-of-life vehicle; an EU Directive requires manufacturers to take back ELVs and ensure environmentally sound recycling and disposal
EMOS
Ford’s Energy Management Operating System, a mechanism for integrating energy-efficient principles into the facility design, manufacturing/engineering processes, and operations of Ford Manufacturing, Office and Engineering facilities
EPA
The Environmental Protection Agency, a U.S. government agency
ERGs
Ford’s Employee Resource Groups, affinity networks at the company that are intended to foster diversity and inclusion
ESC
Electronic Stability Control, crash avoidance technology
ESI
Employee Satisfaction Index, eight questions on Ford’s annual Pulse survey of employees
Ethanol
A gasoline alternative, typically derived from plant material (e.g., corn, sugar cane, sugar beets); can also be made from petroleum. Plant-derived ethanol is also sometimes called bioethanol.
EU
European Union
Euro 4, Euro 5, Euro 6
Europe’s tailpipe emissions standards; Euro 5 standards have been completely phased in for light-duty vehicles in Europe as of January 1, 2012. Euro 6 standards were developed and applied in September 2014.
EV
Electrified vehicle, a generic term for any vehicle that is powered – at least in part – by an electric motor
FCV
Fuel cell vehicle, a vehicle that uses an onboard fuel cell to create electrical power through a chemical reaction based on hydrogen fuel
FFV
Flexible fuel vehicle, a vehicle that can be run on any blend of unleaded gasoline with up to 85 percent ethanol
Ford DSFL
Ford Driving Skills for Life, our driver education program
FPS
Ford Production System, a continuously improving, lean, flexible and disciplined common global production system
Ford Smart Mobility
Our plan to take Ford to the next level in connectivity, mobility, autonomous vehicles, the customer experience, and data and analytics
Fuel cell
A type of power plant that generates electricity by combining oxygen and hydrogen, and can be used in different sizes and configurations to power vehicles or buildings
Fuel economy
The distance that can be traveled on a single gallon of fuel
Fuel efficiency
The amount of fuel needed to move a vehicle of a certain weight a certain distance
GHG
Greenhouse gas, e.g., carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) or water vapor
Go Further
Ford’s global brand promise to express what we stand for as a company
GPDS
Global Product Development System, Ford’s system for integrating product development with manufacturing
GQRS
Global Quality Research System, which tracks “Things Gone Wrong” and is Ford’s primary quality survey
GRI
Global Reporting Initiative, a multi-stakeholder process and independent institution whose mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable sustainability reporting guidelines
HEV
Hybrid electric vehicle; a full hybrid can run exclusively on battery power, exclusively on gas power or on a combination of both
IIHS
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, a U.S.-based nonprofit organization
Indirect Suppliers
Suppliers of facilities, materials and services
ISO 14001
The leading global environmental management system standard, developed by the International Organization for Standardization
JMC
Jiangling Motors Corporation, Ltd., one of Ford’s joint ventures in China
LEED
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, the “green building” rating system of the U.S. Green Building Council
LEV
Low Emission Vehicle, a level of standards for tailpipe emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen) enforced in California and states that have adopted California standards
LEV program
The unique vehicle emissions program adopted by California for the control of tailpipe and evaporative emissions that provides several sets of emissions standards
LiDAR
Technology enabling autonomous vehicles to map the world around them
Life cycle assessment
Process of assessing the environmental, social and economic impacts of a product system over its entire life cycle, from cradle to grave, including material production, product manufacture, product use, product maintenance and disposal at end of life.
LPG
Liquefied petroleum gas (also known as propane or Autogas), a type of alternative fuel
Materiality
Materiality as used in this sustainability report does not share the meaning assigned to this concept for purposes of financial reporting. For the purposes of this report, we consider material information to be that which is of greatest interest to, and which has the potential to affect the perception of, those stakeholders who wish to make informed decisions and judgments about the company’s commitment to environmental, social and economic progress.
Materiality Analysis
An analysis that scans, identifies and reviews sustainability issues that are of the highest concern to our stakeholders and that could significantly affect our company’s ability to execute its business strategy
MEA
Middle East & Africa, a Ford region
Megatrends
Great forces in societal development that interact and affect each other and will also affect governments, markets and civil society for many years to come
MP&L
Ford’s Material Planning and Logistics organization, whose responsibilities include designing and operating our global transportation networks and engineering high-quality and efficient packaging to protect material in transit
Multimodal
A term used to describe a commute or journey in which different modes of transportation are used, including car, bus, train, cycling and walking
MY
Model Year, the manufacturer’s annual production period which includes January 1 of the calendar year. For example, production of 2016 model year vehicles might begin in June 2015 and end in May 2016, but could start as early as January 2, 2015, and end as late as December 2016. We report fuel economy by model year because that is how it is reported to government agencies, and therefore, this data corresponds to what is available in the public domain.
NADA
National Automobile Dealers Association, an industry association of car and truck dealers
NCAP
New Car Assessment Program, a term commonly used to denote an official, independent vehicle testing and/or rating system. Separate NCAPs now exist in the United States, Europe, Australia, China, and Central and South America.
NGO
Nongovernmental organization
NHTSA
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, a U.S. government agency
NMOG
Non-methane organic gases
NPRI
National Pollutant Release Inventory (Canada), similar to U.S. TRI
OEM
Original equipment manufacturer
OHS policy
Ford’s Occupational Health and Safety policy
One Ford
Ford’s accelerated restructuring plan; One Team unified in pursuing One Plan to deliver One Goal: An exciting, viable Ford
PAS
Ford’s Partnership for Advanced Studies, our flagship education program
PACE
The Partnership for A Cleaner Environment, a supply chain sustainability initiative to reduce the collective environmental footprint of Ford and our automotive supply chain
Parasitic loss
The energy lost through friction in the drivetrain of a vehicle between the engine and the drive wheels
PHEV
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, a vehicle similar to an HEV in that it is equipped with both an electric battery and a gas-powered engine; however, PHEVs are equipped with a high-capacity battery that can be charged from an ordinary household outlet
PPA
Public-Private Alliance for Responsible Mineral Trade, a joint initiative among governments, companies and civil society to support supply chain solutions to conflict minerals challenges
PSI
Product Sustainability Index, a tool used by Ford of Europe to incorporate life cycle analysis into product development
Pulse survey
Ford’s annual, voluntary survey of salaried-employee satisfaction
QOS
Ford’s global Quality Operating System, used in our manufacturing to develop, measure and continuously improve robust processes
REACH
Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical Substances (EU legislation)
REEs
Rare Earth Elements, a suite of mined materials widely used in consumer and automotive electronics
SAR
Special Attention Review, a Ford management process
SOS
Ford’s Safety Operating System, a component of Ford’s overall manufacturing strategy and provides for the health and safety of our employees
SDGs
United Nations Sustainable Development Goals – a set of global goals replacing the United Nations Millennium Development Goals
Stakeholder
Anyone who is impacted or believes they are impacted by the operations or practices of the company, including customers, employees, business partners, shareholders, governments, communities and nongovernmental organizations. Some also consider the environment a stakeholder.
STEM
Science, technology, engineering and math
Sustainability
A business model that creates value consistent with the long-term preservation and enhancement of environmental, social and financial capital. Also, meeting the needs of the present without compromising the future.
Sustainable Technologies and Alternative Fuels Plan
Ford’s product strategy, outlining the near-, mid- and long-term steps we are taking to develop and deploy vehicle and fuel technologies to implement our Blueprint for Sustainability
SUV
Sport utility vehicle
Tank-to-wheels CO2 emissions
A subset of well-to-wheels CO2 emissions; includes the CO2 generated by burning the fuel in the vehicle
TGW
“Things Gone Wrong,” a metric measured by the Global Quality Research System (GQRS)
Tier 1 suppliers
Suppliers sourcing directly to our assembly plants
Tier 2 suppliers
Suppliers not sourcing directly to our assembly plants
Tier 2 and Tier 3 emissions standards
The U.S. federal program, starting with the 2004 model year, to control vehicle emissions standards. Tier 3 emissions standards, which are more stringent than Tier 2 standards, were proposed in 2013.
TRI
Toxics Release Inventory, an inventory of releases and transfers of certain chemicals that are required to be reported to the U.S. government
UAW
The International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America
UNGC
United Nations Global Compact, a global policy initiative through which businesses agree to align their operations with 10 principles in the areas of human rights, labor, environment and anti-corruption
URP
University Research Program, a Ford program for collaborating with researchers at more than 100 universities worldwide
VIAQ specifications
Ford’s Vehicle Interior Air Quality specifications, which require the consideration of the air-quality and allergen impacts of the materials and components in our vehicles
VOCs
Volatile organic compounds, compounds that vaporize (become a gas) at relatively low temperature
WBCSD
World Business Council for Sustainable Development
Well-to-tank CO2 emissions
A subset of well-to-wheels CO2 emissions; measures the CO2 generated by excavating the feedstocks and producing and distributing the fuel or electricity
Well-to-wheels CO2 emissions
Accounts for emissions from the vehicle itself, as well as CO2 emissions resulting from the production and distribution of fuel
WRI
World Resources Institute, a U.S.-based nonprofit organization