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Alternative Fuels and Powertrains

Our plan to develop sustainable technologies and alternative fuels includes researching and developing alternative powertrains and fuel options across all our vehicles, delivering on our promise to give customers the power of choice.

En Route to Lower-Carbon Fuels

As part of our strategy to support global climate stabilization goals and a more sustainable portfolio, we have developed a roadmap for migrating our vehicle technologies toward the use of lower-carbon fuel options. We offer a range of powertrain and fuel options that are designed to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions and improve fuel efficiency.

Our plan to progress sustainable technologies and alternative fuels includes researching and developing alternative powertrains and fuel options across all our vehicles, delivering on our promise to give customers the power of choice.

Global Fuels Migration Path

Now (<2021)

Gasoline and Diesel
  • Growth of fossil fuel continues with developments in extraction technologies
Electricity (HEV, PHEV, BEV)
  • Electricity grids start to transition to low-CO2 future
  • Implementation of renewable energy, including solar and wind
Renewable Biofuels
  • First generation biofuel production increases
  • CNG and LPG available in limited markets

Near (2021–2024)

Gasoline and Diesel
  • Gasoline/diesel fuel quality improvements
Electricity (HEV, PHEV, BEV)
  • Electricity grids continue to transition to low-CO2 future
  • Fleet programs confirm grid/infrastructure readiness for plug-in HEVs and BEVs
  • Grid/infrastructure and standardization support expansion of plug-in HEVs and BEVs
Renewable Biofuels
  • Renewable fuel capacity expands in select markets
  • Second generation biomass-based fuel production technology matures
  • CNG expands in commercial fleets
  • Availability increases with demand and production capacity

Far (2025+)

Gasoline and Diesel
  • Further gasoline/diesel fuel quality improvements to support advanced vehicle technologies
Electricity (HEV, PHEV, BEV)
  • Clean electricity further enhances the benefit of plug-in HEVs and BEVs
Renewable Biofuels
  • Renewable fuel capacity expands in all markets
  • Greater contribution by second generation biomass-based fuels
  • CNG from alternative/renewable sources
  • Increasing fraction of liquid renewable hydrocarbons in fuel portfolio

Electric Vehicles

We plan to spend $11 billion by 2022 to build a model lineup of 40 hybrid vehicles, including 16 fully electric models. As well as this, we’re aiming to develop a high-performance electric utility vehicle by 2020.

Thinking Big About Electrified Vehicles

Leading in electrification, autonomy and connectivity is a vital component of our plan for the future. We have already committed a plan that includes an investment of $11 billion to put 40 hybrid and fully electric vehicles on the road by 2022. Our extended electric vehicle strategy aligns with increasing calls for cleaner, more efficient vehicles, and we remain focused on delivering affordable electric vehicles at scale.

We want to stay ahead of the curve in terms of electric innovation. Global demand for new, cleaner transportation is rising. China, India, France and the U.K. have all already announced plans to phase out vehicles powered solely by combustion engines and fossil fuels between 2030 and 2040. And we want to help them stay on track toward that goal.

In May 2018, we moved our electric vehicle and autonomous vehicle teams into a refurbished former factory in Detroit’s historic Corktown neighborhood. The new environment will accelerate our push into electrification and strengthen development of self-driving cars, while identifying and solving challenges for these vehicles in an urban environment.

We already have nearly two decades of experience in electrification – developing vehicles that run on a battery-powered electric motor or a combination of electric and gasoline powertrains, along with the supporting infrastructure. We are committed to significantly increasing investments in electric vehicles.

In March 2018, we announced an extension of our partnership with the Mahindra Group to co-develop a small electric vehicle and a number of SUVs. Using our expertise, global reach and connectivity technologies, the vehicles will build on Mahindra’s existing portfolio of commercial electric vehicles.

In China, Ford is exploring a possible joint venture with Anhui Zotye Automobile Co. to produce an electric passenger vehicle, representing our commitment to new energy vehicles in the sector’s fastest-growing market in the world.

We’re all in on this and we’re taking our mainstream vehicles, our most iconic vehicles, and we’re electrifying them. If we want to be successful with electrification, we have to do it with vehicles that are already popular.”

Bill Ford

Bill Ford,Chairman, Ford Motor Company

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)

Power Sources

Internal combustion engine (ICE), electric motor with a battery system


  • When using the electric motor and battery system only (e.g., low speeds, short distances), no gasoline is used
  • Can run on battery power, on ICE power, or both
  • Regenerative braking system captures energy to recharge the battery


Hybrid versions of high-volume product platforms, including: Ford C MAX, Ford Fusion, Ford Mondeo, Lincoln MKZ, Ford Police Responder Hybrid Sedan

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)

Power Sources

Internal combustion engine (ICE), electric motor with a high-voltage electric battery


  • Battery can be charged from a household or public electric outlet
  • When battery is depleted, vehicle functions as a standard HEV
  • Accrues charge through regenerative braking
  • Tailpipe emissions can reach zero when running on battery power


Fusion Energi, Ford C MAX Energi, Mondeo Energi, Police Special Service Plug-in Hybrid Sedan

Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

Power Sources

High-voltage electric motor, powered by a lithium-ion battery pack


Lack of tailpipe CO2 and other emissions during use


Focus Electric

 Case Study

Delivering More E-Vans for Deutsche Post DHL

We’re partnering with Deutsche Post DHL Group to produce electric delivery vans (e-vans). In 2017, almost 150 e-vans – manufactured in Aachen, Germany – were used to support the group’s urban parcel delivery service in Germany, and we plan to build 2,500 more by the end of 2018.

Our most recent model, the StreetScooter WORK XL, is based on our Ford Transit chassis fitted with a battery-electric drivetrain. Its battery has a range of up to 200 km, and an average charging time of just three hours. Each WORK XL could save around 5 metric tons of CO2 emissions and 1,900 liters of diesel fuel annually. So when all 2,500 planned vehicles are in service, this could avoid 12,500 metric tons of CO2 and save 4.75 million liters of fuel every year.

In addition to the WORK XL, more than 3,000 StreetScooter WORK and WORK L electric vehicles, plus about 10,500 pedelecs, are currently in service, making Deutsche Post DHL the largest e-fleet operator in Germany.

This joint project will be Europe’s largest manufacturer of emission-free, medium-sized e-vans, and it doesn’t come a moment too soon. Buses, cars and delivery vans play vital roles in our daily lives, but we have to find a way to make them cleaner. This project is a great step along this path.”

Steven Armstrong

Steven Armstrong,Group Vice President and President, Europe, Middle East & Africa, Ford Motor Company

Vehicles Powered by Alternative Fuels

Renewable Biofuel Vehicles


  • Ethanol, currently made from fermented corn sugars or sugar cane, is usually blended with gasoline (e.g., E10 or E85); ethanol from non-food feedstocks is technically feasible
  • Biodiesel, made from soy, canola, rapeseed, corn or palm oil, or animal fats, and mixed with fossil diesel (e.g., B7, B20)


  • Biofuels made from renewable resources may reduce CO2 emissions
  • Next-generation biofuels made from plant cellulose use stems and leaves, reducing competition for food crops


  • E85 FFV: Focus, Escape, Explorer, Taurus, F-150, Transit Connect, Transit
  • B20: F-150, F-250/F-350 Super Duty, Transit

CNG and LPG Vehicles


  • Compressed natural gas (CNG)
  • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)


  • Lower CO2 and life cycle GHG emissions than gasoline or diesel vehicles
  • Lower non-CO2 emissions


Wide range of commercial vehicles: F-150, F-250, F-350, Transit, Transit Connect, F-X50 cutaway, F-X50 chassis cab

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles (FCVs)


Hydrogen fuel cell system – converts stored hydrogen to electricity


  • Zero-emission electric-drive vehicles
  • Only water and low-temperature heat are by-products

CO2 Savings vs. Gasoline (E10) in the U.S.

Powertrain/FuelTank-to-wheels5 CO2 emissionsWell-to-wheels6 CO2 emissions
PHEV1, 745%37%
BEV (grid-average electricity)100%56%
BEV (renewable electricity)100%100%
B7 (Europe)415%17%
B20 (U.S.)415%24%

At What Life Cycle Stage Are Most GHG Emissions Released?

In gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles (including hybrids)... it is during the vehicle’s use

In plug-in hybrids,8 battery- and hydrogen-powered vehicles... it is during production of the fuel (electricity or hydrogen)

What’s Next in Alternative Fuels and Powertrains?

Our PHEV Ford Transit Custom van is the centerpiece of a multimillion-dollar project to improve air quality in London and Valencia. A 12-month trial was launched last year in London, and the project is now being extended to the Spanish city of Valencia. Featuring a fleet of vans running solely on electric power, it will explore how PHEVs can contribute to cleaner air targets and enhanced productivity.

Ford is a founding partner – along with BMW Group, Daimler AG, and Volkswagen Group with Audi and Porsche – of IONITY, a pan-European joint venture to develop the continent’s most efficient fast-charging network for electric vehicles. Together, we plan to build 400 fast-charging stations in key European locations by 2020. Our aim is to make long-range travel easy for electric vehicles.

With respect to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles, Ford continues to research fuel cell technology with the goal of making the technology affordable and closing technical gaps associated with durability and operation in cold climates.