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Addressing Non-CO2 Emissions

We are working hard to reduce emissions of criteria and non-CO2 pollutants in our research, product development and operations. We do this in accordance with vehicle emissions standards around the world, as they become increasingly stringent.

Fuel-combusting vehicles release smog-forming vehicle criteria emissions that get trapped close to the ground and create a haze that can affect people’s health. These emissions are the result of the incomplete combustion of fuels, impurities in fuels and the high-temperature oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen during the fuel combustion process. Criteria pollutants associated with smog include hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide and particulate matter. In many areas of the developed world, air quality has improved in recent decades due to the implementation and enforcement of emissions standards for motor vehicles as well as for stationary sources.

We comply with criteria emission standards in all regions, including the new Tier 3/LEV III standards in the United States and the Real Driving Emissions standard in Europe.

Regional Criteria Emissions Standards


Salient Issue

Air Quality

During our first formal human rights saliency assessment, we identified air quality as one of our nine most important issues – those at risk of the most severe negative impact through Ford’s activities and business relationships.

Going forward, we’re taking steps to develop action plans to manage and remediate these issues, and to expand our reporting on them.

  Find out more about our human rights saliency assessment

United States

Already Compliant or Surpassing

  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2 regulations
  • California’s Low Emission Vehicle II (LEV II) program

Becoming Compliant as Phased In

  • EPA Tier 3 standards
  • California’s LEV III standards, closely aligned with the EPA’s Tier 3 program


Already Compliant or Surpassing

  • Euro 6 tailpipe emissions standards Phase I

Becoming Compliant as Phased In

  • Euro 6 Phase II
  • Euro 6d Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards
  • Worldwide Harmonized Light


Becoming Compliant as Phased In

  • National stage-6 emission standards

Other Regions

Already Compliant or Surpassing

  • India: Current regulations based on Euro 4 and Euro 5 standards
  • Brazil and Argentina: Standards based on Euro 5
  • Middle East: Standards based on Euro 2, Euro 3 diesel, and Euro 4

Becoming Compliant as Phased In

  • India’s Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) standards

Beyond the Tailpipe

With the decrease in vehicle tailpipe emissions, other emissions are assuming a greater proportional importance. Through our Restricted Substance Management Standard, we have:

  • Prohibited GHGs such as perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
  • Replaced all chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants with hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not contribute to ozone depletion and have significantly lower global warming impacts

Globally, we continue to lower non-CO2 GHG emissions. For example, in the U.S., we have replaced HFC-134a with HFC-1234yf – a compound with a lower global warming potential – in many passenger cars across our portfolio. The lack of servicing infrastructure and substantially higher costs limit the use of HFC-1234yf in other markets, but we remain committed to further reducing non-CO2 emissions.

We are exploring current and likely future particulate matter emissions associated with brake and tire wear and from different vehicle technologies. We have completed an initial analysis and will discuss our findings in a future report.